Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways.
causing narrowing and swelling of the airways and hyperreactivity of bronchospasm and
Mucus overproduction. This swelling or inflammation causes the airways
hypersensitive and increases the risk of allergic reaction.
Asthma is an incurable disease of the airways, which causes inflammation and narrowing within the lungs and tightens the muscles that control the airways, making air supply difficult.
According to research, about 8.3 percent of people in the United States have a form of asthma, while worldwide 250,000 people die each year from asthma.
Causes / Etiology
It is not clear why some people get asthma and others
No, but below are some factors responsible for asthma.
- Environmental factors
- Temperature change mainly cold air
- Change in humidity of dry air.
- Atmospheric Pollutants
- Cigarette, industrial smoke, ozone, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde.
- Inhalation of allergens
- Foods treated with sulfate, beer, wine, etc.
- Stress / emotional distress
- NSAIDs, B blockers
- Strong odors and perfumes.
Sign and symptom
Asthma cannot be cured, but its symptoms can be
controlled as they vary from person to person and often change over time. It is
It is important that you work with your doctor to control your signs and symptoms,
because you may have infrequent asthma attacks or have symptoms only in certain
- Signs and symptoms of asthma include:
- Wheezing (a hissing sound when exhaling)
- Cough (all night and early morning)
- Tightness or pain in the chest
- Shortness of breath, cough, or wheezing, especially when sleeping
- Dyspnea (dyspnea)
- Ronchi (sound during inspiration)
Types of Asthma
There are many different types of asthma, separated by
age and severity. If you have been diagnosed with asthma, it is important
Understand what type it has, it can help you understand how to manage it.
- Extrinsic (allergic asthma)
Asthma is triggered by allergens like pollen, pets, and dust mites. About 80% of people with allergic asthma suffer from hay fever, eczema, or food allergies. You have allergic asthma, your doctor will prescribe a preventive inhaler to take every day and a reliever inhaler at the time of the asthma attack.
Asthma occurs mainly in childhood. According to the American Lung Association Between 400,000 and 1 million children experience severe asthma symptoms. Tempered Asthma can resolve without treatment during childhood as they age.
However, the condition may return later if it is
moderate or severe
Non-allergic asthma does not trigger like pollen or dust, commonly occurs around the age of 35 and is less
Common as allergic asthma. This type of asthma is often persistent and requires daily management of outbreaks and prevention of symptoms.
Obesity is a strong risk factor of this type of asthma and women are more likely to develop it after the age of 20 years.
Some people experience asthma that only flares up at certain times of the year, such as during hay fever season or when it is cold. If you have been diagnosed with seasonal asthma, you
You may only need to take your medicine during the season and for a short time.
Asthma The Attacks
Inflammation in the respiratory system can lead to severe asthma attack Asthma attacks occur when symptoms are at their peak, it can start suddenly or from mild to severe.
These types of asthma attacks can be dangerous and
require urgent hospitalization At the start of an asthma attack, not enough air enters the lungs, nor does carbon dioxide leave the lungs at full speed. Coal dioxide is poisonous if the body does not release the gas. In prolonged asthma attacks the lungs fill with gas and oxygen cannot enter the bloodstream in
About 12 percent of people face difficulties controlling asthma, and 5 percent see no improvement after using standard medications for severe asthma. While with the correct medication and effective trigger avoidance, asthma symptoms may be under control.
There is no way to prevent asthma, but by working together, you and your doctor can design a plan to live better.
- Write a detailed plan for taking medications with the help of your doctor to control your asthma and strictly follow that action plan.
- Get vaccinated against the flu and pneumonia that triggers asthma flares.
- Find out what causes and triggers make your asthma worse and try to avoid them.
- Regularly monitor and record your breathing with a homemade peak flow meter.
- If you identify and treat attacks early, you are less likely to have a severe attack.
- Take your medicine as prescribed and do not change anything without consulting your doctor.
- Talk to your doctor about increasing the use of quick-relief inhalers.
- History collection
- ABG (atrial blood gas analysis), hypoxemia, increased acidosis
- Chest x-ray for hyperinflation of light
- Auscultation of the sound of breathing.
- Respiratory insufficiency
- Atelectasis (collapse of the lungs)
- Heart attack
The nurse generally performs the following assistance.
- Evaluate the clinical signs of the airway patient distress.
- If it’s acute respiratory distress she will provide emergency management.
- Take a patient story.
- Collect knowledge about allergy reaction under different environmental conditions.
- Ask about the workplace and lifestyle.
- Provides psychological support to patient.
- Assess respiratory rate and breathing pattern and depth.
- Give the hunter’s position to the patient.
- It provides bronchodilators and steroids.
- Gives suction if the airways block.
- Monitors sputum for color and consistency.
- Gives oral hygiene every 2-4 hours.
- Evaluate lung sounds every hour to determine gas exchange.
- Evaluates the color of the mucous membrane or skin for the detection of cyanosis.
At the hospital, your doctor does the following behavior.
- Inhalation of beta-agonist.
- Increases the blood supply to the heart.
- Give theophylline orally or parenterally
- Gives nebulized atropine sulfate.
- Gives lasting control medicines
- Give quick-relief medications