Monday, September 20, 2021

Dysmenorrhea; Etiology: Clinical manifestation

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What is dysmenorrhea?

Dysmenorrhea is the medical term for painful menstruation, most common of gynecological dysfunctions. Also known as painful periods or menstrual cramps, which throb in the lower abdomen, caused by uterine contractions. For some women, the discomfort is only bothersome, while for others menstrual cramps can be severe enough and interfere with daily activities. Some women also have nausea, loose stools, headache, and dizziness.

Etiology

According to etiological factors, is divided into two parts.

It is defined as cramps in the lower abdomen just before or
during menstruation due to less secretion of prostaglandins. Common menstrual pain. It can range from mild to severe and lasts from 12 to 72 hours.

It is due to a disorder in the reproductive organs of women, in
Whose pain usually begins earlier in the menstrual cycle and lasts longer. Some
the causes are as:

  • Endometriosis
  • Pelvic infection
  • Congenital abnormalities
  • Ovarian Cyst
  • Uterine Fibroids
  • Adenomyosis
  • Psychological factors
  • Intrauterine Device
  • Cervical stenosis

Both types can be treated.

Clinical manifestation

  • Pain can be caused by increased uterine contractility (hardening) by chemicals called prostaglandin and uterine hypoxia.
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Headache
  • Cold
  • Fatigue
  • Nervousness
  • lower Back pain

Diagnostic evaluation

  • Physical exam
  • Pelvic ultrasound
  • Hysteroscopy and laparoscopy
  • Chlamydia and gonorrhea test for infection

Medical administration

If of dysmenorrhea, your doctor will prescribe the following medical treatment.

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and veldecoxib.
  • Hormonal contraceptives to decrease contractility and menstrual flow.
  • Local heat, such a heating pad to increase blood flow and decrease spasm.
  • In some cases DNC (dilation and curettage)

Risk factor’s

Risk factor’s for dysmenorrhea may include the following:

  • Years less than 30
  • Start puberty
  • Heavy bleeding during periods
  • Irregular menstrual bleeding
  • Family history
  • Of smoking
  • Obesity
  • Diet
  • Depression and abuse

Complications

Menstrual cramps do not cause other medical complications, but can disrupt your daily activities. Certain conditions associated with worse menstrual cramps.
It can have complications like:

  • Endometriosis can cause infertility
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease can stain the fallopian tubes
  • Increased risk of implantation of a fertilized egg outside the uterus (ectopic pregnancy)

Prevention

  • Give up smoking
  • Losing weight can reduce the severity of cramps
  • Medication can prevent and treat dysmenorrhea
  • Contraceptives and Prostaglandin Medications Can Prevent Cramps
  • Avoid salt and caffeine.
  • Avoid alcohol
  • Massage the lower back and abdomen.

Clinical manifestation Complications Diagnostic evaluation Dysmenorrhea Etiology menstruation Prevention Risk factors

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